Quick tutorial

As your main task will be to count Groups and Sunspots, let's have a look at them more closely.

Sunspots are the darker regions on the surface of the sun, we like to call them umbra.

Groups of sunspots come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Sunspots within a same group are closer to one another, often shaping a pattern we like to call dipole. But not every group is a dipole. And a single or just some few, isolated sunspots is also one group.

Groups and sunspots, the ones you will count.

Penumbra are the light grey regions sometimes surrounding the sunspots. On our drawings we just draw the outer ring of the penumbra, without filling it with grey. You don't have to count the ring when you count the sunspots.

Dipoles represents the two poles of the magnetic activity between sunspots of a larger group. Like a magnet, large sunspots groups have two poles with opposite polarities. They are often found with one penumbra at each end, sometimes on only one though. Keep this in mind, it can help you to separate more easily the differents groups.

The rings and dipoles don't have to be counted.